“The first point to which I would like to draw your attention is the general tendency toward étatisme, by which democracy, while trying to achieve its nature, devours itself. This is a fate which, I believe, it is hard for democracy to escape. A democracy is in duty bound to assist the masses, and even capitalists when they are in trouble; and this it can do only by overloading the old liberal institutions with an ever greater number of tasks. The result everywhere is an increase in areas of power, of a kind and a quantity that no political democracy can control. Thus the so-called sovereignty of the people is more than ever reduced to a fiction. The State budget reaches monstrous proportions, which not even specialists can make head or tail of. Real sovereignty passes into the hands of the bureaucracy, which by definition is anonymous and irresponsible, while the legislative bodies begin to look like gatherings of old windbags squabbling over trifles. As the legislative function declines, it is inevitable that the average moral standard of the legislator will also decline. Members of Parliament no longer care about anything except getting re-elected. In order to repay the favors of the pressure groups on whose support their re-election depends, they need the good will of the administration. The organs of local government, the so-called intermediary powers, all traditional and spontaneous forms of social existence die out .Or if they survive, they are rendered meaningless.” – Ignazio Silone, School For Dictators (1938, rev. 1963)

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